Explanation of medical terms

Allergology and immunology

Allergology tackled allergies, or the intolerance of certain agents. An allergy is an inadequate reaction of our immune system to agents that are normally present in our surroundings. These agents could be pollen, mites, dust, animal fur, insect bites and stinges (bees, ants), various kinds of food (milk, cereals, fruits and vegetables) but also sunshine and substances in cosmetic products.
Typical symptoms of an allergy include swelling of the mucous membranes, inflammation, runny nose, itching and difficulty breathing which can even progress to a life-threatening anaphylactic shock.

Immunology is an area of research focused on the immune system, it’s malfunctions and ways of influencing its function (eg. Through vaccination).


Angiology focuses on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of blood and lymph vessels (diseases of veins and arteries, inflammation issues and the lymphatic system).


Audiometry is one of the methods of diagnosing heating, based on which a doctor determines whether there is a problem with hearing loss.


Dermatology concerns the health status of skin (including hair, nails, sweat glands etc). Among the most common dermatological issues are acne, atopic eczema, warts, contact dermatitis, psoriasis or various mycoses on skin and nails.


The diabetology department offers complex care for patients with diabetes mellitus. It encompasses with the diagnosis and treatment of all types of diabetes and the education of patients.


Endocrinology concerns  the diagnosis and treatment of hormonal disbalance. The most common ones include disorders of the thyroid gland, osteoporosis, disorders of the parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, and, in case of women, polycystic ovary syndrome.


EEG or electroencephalogram is a common method of examining the central nervous system.


ECG or electrocardiogram is a common method of examining the electrical activity of the heart.


EMG or electromyography studies the function of skeletal muscles by monitoring the electrical signals that muscles produce.


Phoniatry is a department that takes care of patients with speech, voice and hearing disorders.


Gastroenterology includes the diagnosis and treatment of the gastrointestinal tract, including non-specific gut disease (Crohn disease, ulcerative colitis).


Gynaecology focuses on the female reproductive system -  prevention of diseases and their treatment.

Surgery and proctology

The surgical department concerns removal of foreign bodies, birthmarks, lipomas, operations of varices, hernia, and the appendix, removal of gallbladder stones etc.

Proctology focuses on the treatment of disorders and illnesses of the anus and rectum (haemorrhoids, rectal prolapses and anal fissures).

Infusion therapy

Application of infusion substances – analgesics, vasodilates, high doses of vitamin C and others.


Inhalation is breathing in of specific substances (mineral steams, medicine solutions) in order to alleviate issues with upper and lower respiratory tract, with asthma, allergies or persistent cough.

Internal medicine and geriatrics

Internal medicine diagnoses and treats the internal diseases.

Geriatrics specifically diagnoses and treats the internal illnesses of elderly patients.


Vaccines against TBC – tuberculosis.


The cardiology department concerns the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases.

Lymphatic drainage

Lymphatic drainage (lymphatic massage) is a special manual or device massage technique, which helps remove waste and toxic material which builds up in the lymph. Lymphatic drainage increases the rate of metabolism and smoothens the appearance of cellulite.


MAMMACENTRUM Budějovická offers ultrasound and screening mammographic examination of both female and male breasts. Find more information here.

Neurology and child neurology

Neurology concerns the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the nervous system. During a neurological examination, the posture, walking and muscle tension are assessed, sensitive and sensory nerves and reflexes are tested. The patient’s mental state is also broadly assessed.
The most common problems are headache, vertigo, epilepsy, blood vessel illnesses, Parkinson’s disease, neurological symptoms of psychosomatic diseases and post-injury or spontaneous blockades of the spine.

A special part of neurology is child neurology for newborns and up to 18 years of age. It concerns retarded motoric (movement) and psychological development, speech problems, disorders of sleep, learning and concentration, child epilepsy, non-specific headaches and toher conditions.


ORL (otorhinolaryngology) specialisation diagnoses and treats issues in the ears, nose and throat. Most common problems include pain in throat and ears, sinusitis, laryngitis, poor hearing (includes an assessment of hearing and prescribing hearing aids) and others.


The orthopaedics section specialises on the diagnosis and disease treatment of the muscular system, including prostheses (artificial limbs). We also offer help with degenerative diseases of joints and spine, tendons and ligaments.


The ostheology department diagnoses and treats bone diseases, especially ostheoporosis. At the Budějovická policlinic there is also collaboration with the radiology department to measure bone density – densitometry.


Parodontology is a department that takes care of gums and the periodontium (tissues surrounding the gum). For more information, contact our specialised stomatology clinic here.


A paediatric or general child practitioner ensures preventive and treatment healthcare for children from birth to 18 years of age. He collaborates with all other medical specialisations.


Pneumology focuses on the health of lungs: that is, prevention, diagnosis and treatment of lung diseases. Spirometry, a component of our lung department, examines the functional health of the lungs.

General Practitioner

The GP offers primary and complex healthcare for patients over 18. Based on his or her examination, the patient is sent to other specialists.


Psychiatry specialises into brain function in where this affects behaviour, cognition, awareness and emotions. It focuses on neurosis, psychosis, indicated depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, sexual dysfunctions, eating disorders, personality and mood disorders in children and adults, mental retardations and others.


RDG, or, radiodiagnostic and imaging technology, offers a wide variety of diagnostic examinations using the most modern devices:
These examinations, which are provided in one place by the Budějovická polyclinic, includee:

  • X-ray – roentgen screening of the bones and teeth, as well as lungs
  • MRI – magnetic resonance imaging – displays soft tissue (muscle, sinew)
  • CT – computerised tomography – displays the organs and tissues
  • SONOGRAPHY – ultrasound examination
  • DENSITOMETRY – measuring of bone density
  • SCIASCOPY – imaging of the organs in real time

The urology department offers complete diagnostics and treatment for patients with kidney, ureter, urethra and reproductive organ conditions. Furthermore, it ensures screening for prostate cancer and urine diseases for men, screening for chronic urinary tract infections in women, manages small surgeries and others.

Biochemical examination / Laboratory examination of blood and urine

The examination is one of the basic laboratory methods and certainly each of us has many experiences with it. It is nothing more than the collection of urine and blood, which we subject to various tests in the laboratory to find out what the concentration of substances in the body is. Thanks to biochemical examination, a lot of information about the functioning of metabolism, organs, etc. can be revealed.

Resting ECG

The ECG records heart activity. Rhythm stability, the presence of disorders or the presence of insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle under resting conditions are assessed.

Exercise ECG

Exercise ECG records heart activity during exercise with increasing intensity of exercise (on an exercise bike or treadmill). Possible insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle during exercise, exercise-induced rhythm disorders, and indirectly the performance of the cardiovascular system are observed.

X-ray of lungs and heart

It is an X-ray image of the chest and organs located in the thorax. Nowadays, it is a common examination method that helps us detect deviations from the norm not only in our important organs, such as the heart and lungs.

Abdominal sono / Ultrasogund examination of the abdominal cavity

Sono abdomen is a common ultrasound examination. Ultrasound can be used to image the kidneys, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, bladder or large blood vessels. We get information about their shape, size and structure.